Aerospace Engineering

Upright break g’s: 2500g / 64 = 39G

After a frame by frame analysis of the video of the experiment (which could not be uploaded), it was found that it took the egg 12 frame ralph lauren outlet online s ralph lauren outlet online to make a complete revolution in the 30 fps quality. Therefore:

G’s: centripetal acceleration / gravity = 75.21m/s2/9.81m/s2 = 7.674 G’sThe camera flew off of the box because the tape could not hold the g’s required to break the eggs. The camera subsequently broke the eggs as it hit them at high velocity. It is thus observed that very high g’s, perhaps even too many for the class centrifuge, are re ralph lauren outlet online quired to break the eggs, as they did not break even at a high rate of spin.

The team is awaiting improvements on the camera mount for more insightful results.

It has been concluded that a stronger camera mount is required so that the g’s required to break the eg ralph lauren outlet online gs are reached. A better camera mount is also needed to protect the camera. The team, as well as the class, realized that eggs are surprisingly g force resistant.

Aerospace archive

Robotic dragonflies could be the next explorers on Mars, and a new design is already buzzing around on Earth. Developed by Festo, the mechanical insect exploits the unique mechanics of four winged flight, allowing it to fly in all directions, hover in mid air and glide without beating its wings (see video above).

Each wing’s motion can be fine tuned by controlling its amplitude, flapping frequency and thrust which is achieved by adjusting its tilt and twist. The team says a smartphone can act as a remote control to put the dragonfly almost anywhere in a given space.

Although it appears to be considerably larger than a real dragonfly, the robot is light thanks to a carbon fibre frame and flexible polymer shell. That structure holds a microcontroller, mechanical components, sensors and wireless modules, showing how different functions can be integrated and miniaturised

If you enjoyed this video, watch robot penguins take to the water and the skies or check out a shape shifting robotic bird.

You could soon see glowing objects in the sky: psychedelic planes are being developed. The aim is better aerodynamics, though, rather than ralph lauren outlet online messing with your mind.

Plasma, which makes neon lights glow, can also create jets of air to help propel small plan ralph lauren outlet online es when generated over wings. In this video, captured by Berkant Goeksel and colleagues at the Technical University of Berlin, Germany, the effect on the airflow is visible on a test wing as it extinguishes the flame from a lighter. Another clip, captured in a wind tunnel, shows how ionised gas can help regain lift. The wing is placed at a high angle of attack, a position in which it often experiences loss of lift. But the flow is excited when the plasma is turned on, allowing the wing to rise up again. The wing is loosely mounted in this demo to make the difference in lift visible.

A rare amateur video of the Challenger shuttle disaster has surfaced in Hicksville, New York, over 25 years after the tragic event when seven astronauts lost their lives.

Captured by registered nurse Bob Karman, the chilling raw footage was filmed from Orlando airport, just 80 kilometres from the launch site, as he was returning from a family vacation at Disney World. His late wife and 3 year old daughter Kim, who now works at New Scientist, are visible in the beginning of the clip. “After shooting the video, I had a sense that something went wrong but it wasn’t until we were on the plane that the pilot confirmed the tragedy,” he says.

Karman always remembered filming the event but it was only recently, while researching historic amateur videos, that he became aware of the video’s rarity. Captured in an era that precedes mobile phones, when few people owned camcorders, it’s one of few video recordings of the disaster by a member of the public. In 2010, an article in The Guardian documented the discovery of a similar video, claiming that it was the only one in existence.

According to NASA spokesperson Michael Curie, NASA does not have ralph lauren outlet online a collection of amateur videos of the disaster. “The Rogers Commission used all the NASA photography and videos in its investigation but we do not know if they used outside amateur videos,” he says.

The clip was digitised last month from an old VHS tape. Karman believes he could be the only living person to have documented the tragedy on home video.

For more space related videos, check out the launch of the space shuttle Endeavour or watch our video special of key events that took Apollo to the moon.

The roar of a rocket motor at a test range in Texas seems to herald America’s intent to launch people back into space. Built by SpaceX of Hawthorne, California, it’s one of eight rockets that will be fitted into the conical flanks of the Dragon manned spacecraft. The capsule will allow for propulsive landings on Earth, the Moon or Mars as well as helping astronauts escape a fiery end if the rocket below them explodes.

The motors are hypergolic, meaning that they spontaneously ignite when their two fuels mix. Unlike a solid rocket motor that has to burn fully like a firework, this allows them to be switched on and off at will. Another advantage is that the fuels don’t need to be cooled cryogenically.

In the event of an accident, however, volatile hypergolic fuels can be extremely dangerous. “The Komet’s fulminating rocket fuels would explode spontaneously when mixed in even minute quantities and on one hideous occasion had actually dissolved a pilot alive before rescuers could free him from his crashed aircraft,” he writes.

Since those early days, aerospace engineers have learned a lot about hypergolic rocket motor safety and SpaceX will no doubt have the tanks well protected.

If you enjoyed this post, watch a rocket sled eject a mannequin or see a nanorocket propel itself through liquid.

In this video, the cargo sliding out a plane’s back chute are giant water balloons developed by Boeing to fight wildfires. Specialised air tankers containing fire retardant or water are typically used to control fires but the US Forest Service only has 11 available for use. So Boeing is planning to equip other aircraft for the task by loading them up with cardboard crates lined with biodegradable bags. Air resistance rips the cardboard lid off, tearing off strips fixed to the box and releasing water.

You can read our full blog post about the technique here.

If you enjoyed this video, check out other achievements in aviation including the world’s first 3D plane and the most efficient way to board an airliner.

Boarding a plane can be a frustrating experience as all the passengers clamber through the aisle at the same time to find a seat. But now Jason Steffen, an astrophysicist at Fermilab in Batavia, Illinois, has come up with a more effi ralph lauren outlet online cient method after running computer simulations. In this video, you can watch a group of people test it out.

You can read our full story on the technique here.

If you enjoyed this video, you might like to see an animation of the next generation of supersonic jets or watch a plane fly through the night for the first time using only solar power.

You no longer need high tech machines to create a plane. Armed with a 3D printer, Jim Scanlan from the University of Southampton and his team designed and built a drone in just a week. Even moving parts were produced all in one go doing away with the need for assembly. In this video, you can watch the plane take to the skies for the first time in an airfield close to Stonehenge in the UK.

Aerosol spray

Aerosol spray is a type of dispensing system which creates an aerosol mi ralph lauren outlet online st of liquid particles. This is used with a can or bottle that contains a liquid under pressure. When the container’s valve is opened, the liquid is forced out of a small hole and emerges as an aerosol or mist. As gas expands to drive out the payload,

some propellant evaporates inside the can to maintain an even pressure. Outside the can, the droplets of propellant evaporate rapidly, leaving the payload suspended as very fine particles or droplets. Typical liquids dispensed in this way are insecticides, deodorants and paints. An atomizer is a similar device that is pressurised by a hand operated pump rather than by stored gas.

The concepts of aerosol probably goes as far back as 1790.[1] The first aerosol spray can was invented in Oslo in Novenmber 23 1927 by Erik Rotheim, a Norwegian chemical engineer.[1] The patent was sold to a US company for 100,000 Norwegian kroner.[2] The Norwegian Post Office celebrated the invention by issuing a stamp in 1998.[3]

In 1939, American Julian S. Kahn received a patent for a disposable spray can[4], but the product remained largely undeveloped. It was not until 1941 that the aerosol spray can was first put to good use by Americans Lyle Goodhue and William Sullivan, who are credited as the inventors of the modern spray can.[5] Their design of a refillable spray can dubbed the “bug bomb”, was patented in 1943, and is the ancestor of many popu ralph lauren outlet online lar commercial spray products. Pressurized by liquefied gas, which gave it propellant qualities, the small, portable can enabled soldiers to defend against malaria carrying mosquitoes by spraying inside tents in the Pacific during World War II.[6] In 1948, three companies were granted licenses by the United States government to manufacture aerosols. Two of the three companies still manufacture aerosols to this day, Chase Products Company and Claire Manufacturing. The “crimp on valve”, used to control the spray was developed in 1949 by Bronx machine shop proprietor Robert H. Abplanalp.[5]If aerosol cans were simply filled with compressed gas, it would either need to be at a dangerously high pressure or the amount of gas in the can would be small, and would rapidly deplete. Usually the gas is the vapor of a liquid with boiling point slightly lower than room temperature. This means that inside the pressurised can, the vapor can exist in equilibrium with its bulk liquid at a pressure that is higher than atmospheric pressure (and able to expel the payload), but not dangerously high. As gas escapes, it is immediately replaced by evaporating liquid. Since the propellant exists in liquid form in the can, it should be miscible with the payload or dissolved in the payload.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were once often used, but since the Montreal Protocol came into force in 1989, they have been replaced in nearly every country due to the negative effects CFCs have on Earth’s ozone layer. The most common replacements are mixtures of volatile hydrocarbons, typically propane, n butane and isobutane. Dimethyl ether (DME) and methyl ethyl ether are also used. All these have the disadvantage of being flammable. Nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide are also used as propellants to deliver foodstuffs (for example, whipped cream and cooking spray). The valve can be preassembled with the valve cup and installed on the can as one piece, prior to pressure filling. The actuator is added later.

Modern aerosol spray products have three major parts; the can, the valve and the actuator or button. The can is most commonly lacquered tinplate (steel with a layer of tin) and may be made of 2 or 3 pieces of metal crimped together. Aluminium cans are also common and are generally used for more expensive products. The valve ralph lauren outlet online is crimped to the rig of the can, the design of this component is important in determining the spray rate. The actuator is depressed by the user to open the valve; the shape and size of the nozzle in the actuator controls the spread of the aerosol spray.

that uses a piston barrier system is often used for highly viscous products such as post foaming hair gels, thick creams and lotions, food spreads and industrial products and sealants. The main benefit of the piston barrier system is that is assures separation of the product from the propellant, maintaining the purity and integrity of the formulation throughout its consumer lifespan. The piston barrier system also provides a controlled and uniform product discharge rate with minimal product retention and is economical.

Another type of dispensing system is the bag in can system (or BOV “bag on valve”). This system separates the product from the pressurizing agent with a hermetically sealed, multi layered laminated pouch, which maintains complete formulatio ralph lauren outlet online n integrity so only pure product is dispensed. Among its many benefits, the bag in can system extends a product’s shelf life. The bag on valve, or ABS, is widely used by sun care marketers for its benefits: all attitude (360 degree) dispensing, quiet and non chilling discharge. They do not use compressed air, but rather other inert gasses.

There are two main areas of health concern linked to aerosol cans:

Deliberate inhalation of the contents to gain a high from the propellant

The piggy backing of more dangerous particles into the respiratory tracts1. ^ a b Bellis, Mary The History of Aerosol Spray Cans

2. ^ Kvilesj, Svend Ole (17 February 2003). “Sprayboksens far er norsk” (in Norwegian). Aftenposten. Retrieved on 6 February 2009.

3. ^ Image of the Norway Postage stamp

4. ^ Carlisle, Rodney (2004). Scientific American Inventions and Discoveries, p.402. John Wiley Songs, Inc., New Jersey. ISBN 0471244104.

6. ^ Core, Jim, Rosalie Marion Bliss, and Alfredo Flores. (September 2005) “ARS Partners With Defense Department To Protect Troops From Insect Vectors”. Agricultural Research MagazineVol. 53, No. 9 .